Practice Questions for Quiz 5

 

Multiple Choice Questions:

 

1. Which program was the first to land on the surface of Mars?

          a. Magellan    b. Pioneer      c. Viking        d. Venera      e. Mariner

 

2. Percival Lowell reported several hundred "canals" on the Martian surface. He thought they were ____________ but they turned out to be ___________.

          a. forming a giant face, an irrigation system constructed by Martians

          b. an optical illusion, a giant face

          c. an irrigation system constructed by Martians, an optical illusion

          d. an irrigation system constructed by Martians, a face

          e. all of the above

 

3. The surface of Venus is equally hot during the day and the night because of

          a. the Runaway Greenhouse effect.

          b. the strong magnetic field.

          c. the strong gravitational field.

          d. the sulfuric clouds.

          e. the slow rotation.

 

4. Mars surface contains dried up river channels. This is evidence for the presence of ______________ in the past which means that Mars’ greenhouse effect must have been much ______________.

          a. plate tectonics, stronger

          b. a magnetic field, weaker

          c. liquid water, weaker

          d. a magnetic field, stronger

          e. liquid water, stronger

 

5. Mars rotates

a.      Much faster than Earth             e. about the same speed as Venus

b.      about the same speed as Earth           d. slower than Venus

c.       much slower than Earth           

d.      slower than Earth

 

6. Carbon Dioxide is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere of

          a. Mars         b. Venus        c. Earth         d. a and b      e. a, b, c

 

7. The seasonal part of the northern Martian polar ice cap is

a.      water ice            c. ammonia ice                  e. frozen nitrogen

b.      methane snow     d. frozen carbon dioxide

 

8. The ___________ were the first and only to land a probe on the Surface of Venus and the probe was called

a. US, Mariner                   b. Soviets, Venera    c. US, Viking 

d. Europeans, Pioneer         e. Japanese, Magellan


9. Which of the following has been found on the surface of Venus?

a.      The largest canyon in the solar system           c. large volcanoes              e. a and c

b.      liquid water                                                 d. a and b

 

10. Venus rotates

          a. synchronized with its revolution

          b. retrograde compared to its orbit

          c. once every 59 days

          d. once every 24 hours

          e. not at all


11. The thick clouds of Venus are composed of

          a. Carbon Dioxide     b. Soot         

c. Water Vapor         d. Acids

e. Methane

 

12. Mars surface looks reddish because of

          a. a high abundance of iron oxide (aka “rust”).

          b. Mars’ high average density.

          c. Mars’ large magnetic field.

          d. acids in its atmosphere.

          e. none of the above

 

13. Venus’ surface was mapped with ___________ by a probe called _______________.

          a. visible light, Magellan                 c. visible light, Mariner

          b. radio waves, Magellan               d. radio waves, Mariner

          e. infrared light, Venera

         

For questions 14 – 16 please use the following choices:

a. Mars         b. Venus        c. Earth         d. Mercury     e. none

14. Which object has the smallest percentage of an iron core?

15. Which object has the thinnest atmosphere?

16. Which object has features called lava domes?


For questions 17 – 21 please use the following choices:

          a. Mars         b. Venus        c. Moon         d. Mercury     e. all

17. Which object does not have plate tectonics?

18. Which object’s surface has impact craters?

19. Which object does not have liquid water present on its surface?

20. Which object has the largest mass?

21. Which object has two satellites?

 

Paragraph questions:

         

23. Describe the surface features found on Venus that are called “coronae”, i.e. what do they look like? How do they work?

 

24. Compare and contrast the planets Venus and Earth in terms of their atmosphere, surface, magnetic field, and interior structure.

 

25. Describe the object on Mars’ surface called “Vallis Marineris” (aka Mariner Valley). How is it believed to have formed and does it represent strong evidence for the presence of plate tectonics on Mars?

 

26. Which planet has a larger absolute amount of carbon dioxide, Earth or Mars? Explain your reasoning.

 

27. Mars and Venus both have weak magnetic fields. Explain why in each case.

 

Multiple Choice answers:

1c, 2c, 3a, 4e, 5b, 6d, 7d, 8b, 9c, 10b, 11d, 12a, 13b, 14a, 15d, 16b, 17e, 18e, 19e, 20b, 21a

 

Paragraph Answers:

23. Describe the surface features found on Venus that are called “coronae”, i.e. what do they look like? How do they work?

 

          Coronae are essentially "blisters" of uplifted rock: magma rises up underneath crust which is pushed up like a giant bubble.  When it cools and the lava drains the center slumps (like a pie coming out of the oven) forming a pattern of concentric and radial fractures.  The entire structure is called a "corona" and it is unique to Venus. Coronae are a result of hot spot tectonics.

 

24. Compare and contrast the planets Venus and Earth in terms of their atmosphere, surface, magnetic field, and interior structure.

 

         

Planet

Atmosphere

Surface

Magnetic Field

Interior Structure

Venus

90x more dense, 96% CO2, thick cloud cover, slightly breezy

Very hot, no plate tectonics, large volcanoes, coronae, lava domes, mostly rolling hills with two continent type regions

Very weak in spite of possible presence of liquid metallic outer core, very slow rotation

Presumed to be similar to Earth’s

Earth

Mostly N2, very little CO2, three weather bands per hemisphere with easterly and westerly winds and hurricanes

Plate tectonics causing mountain chains, rift valleys, volcanoes, earthquakes, liquid water, life, polar ice caps

Fairly strong due to liquid metallic outer core and fairly fast rotation, auroras

Solid iron/nickel inner core, liquid iron/nickel outer core, plastic rocky mantle, solid rocky crust

 

 

25. Describe the object on Mars’ surface called “Vallis Marineris” (aka Mariner Valley). How is it believed to have formed and does it represent strong evidence for the presence of plate tectonics on Mars?

 

          Vallis Marineris is the largest canyon system in the solar system. It is 4000 km (New YorkLos Angeles) long, in some places 7 km deep (Grand Canyon is 1 km deep). Earth’s Grand Canyon would fit into a smaller side arm of Valles Marineris. It is a giant crustal fracture due to tectonic activity, likely associated with activity in the volcanic Tharsis Rise. It is not due to plate tectonics, just stress in the crust.

 

26. Which planet has a larger absolute amount of carbon dioxide, Earth or Mars? Explain your reasoning.

 

          Even though Mars’ atmospheric percentage of carbon dioxide is about 96% and Earth’s only 0.03%, Earth has a larger absolute amount of this gas. Mars’ atmosphere is very thin, its atmospheric pressures near the surface are about 150 times less than that of Earth. Here is an analogy: .03% of $ 1,000,000 is $ 300 but 96% of $100 are $96. You get more by getting the lower percentage of the much larger amount.

 

27. Mars and Venus both have weak magnetic fields. Explain why in each case.

 

          Even though Venus has presumably the same internal structure as Earth, including a liquid metallic outer core, it is rotating so slow that it has only a very weak magnetic field. Mars, on the other hand, is much smaller than Venus, it is not as well differentiated and a lot of iron is mixed into the mantle and surface rocks. Mars only has a small, probably solid iron core. These conditions result in a tiny magnetic field.