Historical Geology
Online Laboratory Manual

Pamela Gore

Georgia Perimeter College

Copyright 2011 Pamela J. W. Gore

The 2011 edition of the Historical Geology Online Laboratory Manual is now available for adoption.  The new version is in FULL COLOR and plastic spiral bound.  The Historical Geology Online Laboratory Manual is available for purchase through the Georgia Perimeter College Bookstore website http://www.gpc.bkstr.com or call 678-891-3402 and ask for Sheila.  NEW PHONE NUMBER!!! Payment by credit card only.

The Laboratory Manual will be published by John Wiley and Sons, Inc. in 2012.

Colleges and universities or other schools may preview the lab manual, and obtain copies of individual labs for use by emailing Pamela.Gore@gpc.edu

The Historical Geology Online Laboratory Manual has been used in whole or in part at the following colleges and universities:

Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, Asheville, NC
Bucks County Community College, Newtown, PA
California State University Stanislaus, Turlock, CA
College of Coastal Georgia (formerly Coastal Georgia Community College), Brunswick, GA

College of Charleston, Charleston, SC

College of San Mateo, San Mateo, California

Douglas College, New Westminster, British Columbia, Canada
Eastfield Community College, Mesquite, TX
Front Range Community College, Larimer, Fort Collins, CO

George Mason University, Fairfax, VA

Georgia Perimeter College (Clarkston and Newton Campuses and Online)

Harrisburg Area Community College, Harrisburg, PA
Intute Consortium, United Kingdom:

    ●  University of Birmingham
    ●  University of Bristol
    ●  Heriot-Watt University
    ●  The University of Manchester
    ●  Manchester Metropolitan University
    ●  University of Nottingham
    ●  University of Oxford

Lakeland Community College, Kirtland, OH
Nicolet Area Technical
College, Rhinelander, WI
Pellissippi State Technical Community College, Knoxville, Tennessee

Red Rocks Community College, Lakewood, CO

Regent University, Virginia Beach, Virginia
Sierra College, Rocklin, CA
Southern Illinois University, Carbondale
Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY

Tarrant County College, Fort Worth, Texas
Temple University, Philadelphia, PA

University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH

University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

Victor Valley Community College, Victorville, California

Vincennes University, Vincennes, Indiana

Wake Technical Community College, Raleigh, NC

West Valley College, Saratoga, CA
Western Wyoming Community College, Evanston, Wyoming

This laboratory manual for Historical Geology was developed by Pamela Gore in 1982, and revised and updated in 1989, 1993, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, and now the 2011 edition is available.  The Sand Sieve Analysis Lab and the Biostratigraphy Lab, which were included in earlier editions, and are now available online only, were contributed by Dr. John Anderson of Georgia Perimeter College.

Table of Contents

Note:  Only a few of the labs in this lab manual are available for preview through this web page. Most of the labs are no longer linked to this page because the labs are available commercially through the GPC Bookstore. Colleges and universities or other schools may preview the lab manual, and obtain copies of individual labs for use by emailing Pamela.Gore@gpc.edu.

Teaching Objectives 

2010 edition PDF files (only a few are available online).

Lab 1   Relative Dating ...............................................................    1-11
             Exercises   .....................................................................  12-18
Lab 2   Rocks and Minerals .........................................................  19-40
             Exercises .....................................................................    41-45
Lab 3   Weathering of Rocks and Formation of Sediment .............     47-80
             Exercises  ......................................................................  61-79
Lab 4   Sedimentary Rocks .....................................................     81-100
             Exercises..................................................................... 101-107
Lab 5   Sedimentary Structures ...............................................  109-130
             Exercises
Lab 6   Depositional Sedimentary Environments ........................ 131-152
             Exercises
Lab 7   Stratigraphy and Lithologic Correlation .........................  153-182
             Exercises
Lab 8   Fossils on the Internet .................................................  183-192
Lab 9   Microfossils and Classification of Organisms...................  193-212
             Exercises
Lab 10 Invertebrate Macrofossils ...........................................   213-246
             Exercises
Lab 11 Fossil Preservation and Trace Fossils ...........................   247-268
             Exercises
Lab 12 The Evolution of the Vertebrates ..................................  279-299

From previous editions:
Lab 13 Biostratigraphy .........................................................    269-278
        Example Range Chart ...........................................................   274
        Blank Range Charts ......................................................... 275-278
        Download Excel Time chart for Biostratigraphy Lab
        (Use Internet Explorer to open the Excel file.)
Lab 14 Evolution Assignment
Lab 15 Sand Sieve Analysis
Lab 16 Interpreting Geologic History from Maps: The Grand Canyon Geologic Map

2007 edition

Cover Page 2007
Title Page
Teaching Objectives
Geologic Time Chart - October 2003
Geologic Time Chart Online Quiz
Lab Safety Rules
  1. Relative Dating
    Exercises
  2. Rocks and Minerals
    Exercises
  3. Weathering of Rocks and the Formation of Sediment
    Exercises
    Data Table for Sand Samples
  4. Sedimentary Rocks
    Sedimentary Rock Classification Table
    Exercises
  5. Sedimentary Structures
    Exercises
  6. Depositional Sedimentary Environments
    Sedimentary Environment Classification Chart
    Exercises
  7. Sand Sieve Analysis
  8. Stratigraphy and Lithologic Correlation
    Exercises
  9. Fossils on the Internet
  10. Invertebrate Macrofossils
    Exercises
  11. Fossil Preservation
    Exercises
  12. Microfossils
    Exercises
  13. Biostratigraphy
    Download Excel Time chart for Biostratigraphy Lab (Please use Internet Explorer to open the Excel file.)
  14. Evolution
  15. The Evolution of the Vertebrates: Introduction to Vertebrate Paleontology
  16. Interpreting Geologic History from Maps: The Grand Canyon Geologic Map


To obtain electronic copies of this lab manual for review by Colleges and Universities, or elsewhere, please contact:
Pamela J. W. Gore at Pamela.Gore@gpc.edu.  To obtain hard copies, please contact the GPC Bookstore at 678-891-3402 and ask for Sheila.  Bookstore hours are M-Th 8:30-6, Fri 8:30- 2 pm.