of the teeth in the mandibular arch with those in the maxillary arch when the
jaws are in the closed position
Centric Occlusion Relationship between maxillary and
mandibular occlusal surfaces that provides the maximum contact and or
intercuspation.Evaluate occlusion in centric occlusion.
The molar relationship
is such that the mandibular permanent molar is situated mesially to the
maxillary first molar.
Maxillary teeth slightly
overlap the mandibular teeth on the facial surfaces
All teeth in maxillary
arch are in maximum contact with mandibular.
Any deviation from the
physiologically acceptable relationship of the maxillary arch and/or teeth to
the mandibular arch and/or teeth.
OF GROUPS OF TEETH
An individual may have a normal relationship between
the maxillary and mandibular molars, but individual relations between other
teeth may classify an individual as having malocclusion
Maxillary incisors are
linqual to the mandibular incisors
Maxillary or mandibular
posterior teeth are either facial or linqual to their normal position. This
condistion may occur bilaterally or unilaterally
Incisal surfaces of
maxillary teeth occlude with the incisal edges of mandibular teeth instead of
Molars and premolars
occlude cusp to cusp as viewed mesiodistally.
Lack of occlusal or
incisal contact between certain maxillary and mandibular teeth . The teeth
cannot be brought together.
The horizontal distance
between the labioincisal surfaces of the mandibular incisors and the
linquoincisal surfaces of the maxillary incisors. Hold probe horizontally on
the mandibular incisors to measure to the
maxillary incisal edge in millimeters.
Maxillary teeth are
linqual to mandibular teeth. The horizontal distance between the labioincisal
surfaces of the maxillary incisors and the linquoincisal surfaces of the
Vertical distance by
which the maxillary incisors overlap the mandibular incisors.
Normal incisal edges
are within the incisal third of mandibular.
edges of maxillary are within the cervical third of the mandibular teeth.
OF INDIVIDUAL TEETH
Labioversion-labial to normal
Linquoversion-position lingual to normal
Buccoversion-position buccal to normal
Supraversion-Elongated above the line of occlusion
Torsiversion-turned or rotated
Infraversion-depressed below the line of occlusion.
Class I Malocclusion or Neutroclusion
Class II or Distoclusion
Class III or Mesioclusion
OF PRIMARY TEETH
Canine Relationship- same as permanent dentition
Second Molar Relationship- The mesio buccal cusp of
the maxillary second primary molar occludes with the buccal groove of the
mandibular second primary molar.
Drifting-tooth moves into missing teeth spaces in absence
of disease, the periodontium adapts to newly positioned teeth.
Pathologic Migration disease is present due to destruction of supporting structures
tooth is moved by forces.
Maximum Incisal opening measured from the incisal
edges when mandible is opened to furthest extent.
Pathway of Opening or Closing Note any deviations
from a straight path of opening.
RELATION-CENTRIC OCCLUSION SHIFT
Initial Contacts in Excursions
Centric Relations the
most retruded position of the mandible. Centric occlusion is typically slightly
anterior to centric relation.
Protrusive excursion is
the forward movement of the mandible from centric occlusion until the anterior
teeth are edge to edge.Ideally there should be no contact between posterior
Lateral excursion is the
movement of the mandible from centric occlusion or centric relation to the
right or left until the cuspids are in a cusp to cusp relationship. There
should be no contact on the teeth on the opposite side
consists of all contacts during chewing,swallowing or normal actions.
contacts-normal contacts made during chewing and swallowing.
those made outside the normal range , may create wear facets or attrition and
result from habits. Ie: bruxism,clenching,nail biting,thumb sucking, cheek
Pathologic changes to
the supporting periodontium as a result of normal or excessive occlusal forces
applied to the teeth.
occlusal forces placed on a healthy periodontium that produces changes in the
periodontal tissues. Ie. Orthodontic movement or high restoration
forces of mastication on a periodontium with bone loss produces changes in the
Subjective signs and
symptoms reported by the patient
Pain when biting
& RADIOGRAPHIC FINDINGS
Clinical signs and
Changes in tooth
Deviations from norm
Thickening of PDL
Loss of lamina dura
To examine the
tooth to tooth relationships, the TMJ relationship and movements of the
Palpation and auditory
examination of the TMJ using a stethoscope- clicking,lateral movement,popping
Palpation of the muscles
of mastication-masseter & temporalis muscles
Movement from centric
relation to centric occlusion
Examine right lateral
excursion,left lateral excursion,protrusive excursion and initial contacts in
Measure opening 36-42