Test 4 Review
This is a study help. It is not intended to be all inclusive of
the material studied in class. You should read the textbook as
well as review your lecture notes. The study guide that
accompanies the textbook is another source for study.
Concepts to know:
- What is Seismology, what is studied?
- What are the various types of seismic waves produced by
earthquakes? Body waves, Surface waves, P-waves, S-waves,
L-waves, Love waves, Rayleigh waves.
- How are earthquakes recorded? Seismometer, seismograph,
seismogram, locating earthquakes, intensity scale, magnitude
scale, Mercalli, Richter.
- What are the effects of earthquakes? tsunami, aftershocks,
- Where are earthquakes found? Their distribution? Benioff
- How are earthquake predicted?
- How are earthquakes located? focus, epicenter
The Earth's interior
Concepts to know:
- Evidence from seismic waves, seismic reflection, seismic
- The interior of the earth, crust, oceanic crust, continental
crust, Mohorovicic discontinuity, mantle, lithosphere,
asthenosphere, outer core, inner core.
- What do meteorites tell us about the interior of the earth?
- What are the various measurements of waves? wavelength,
wave height, trough, crest, period of the wave, velocity,
wave base, breakers.
- What is the dynamics of waves as they move into shallower
water? Surf, breaker, height change, wavelength change
- What are the various features produced by waves? wave-cut
cliffs, headlands, beach, spit, barrier island, sea arch
- What are the various currents observed in the ocean?
longshore, rip, tidal, surface.
- What are the effects the sun and the moon have on the ocean?
high tide, low tide, neap tide, spring tide.
- What are the premises of Plate Tectonics?
- Who was Alfred Wegener? What did he propose?
- What evidence do we have for plate tectonics? Fossil
evidence, structural fit, paleoclimatic, paleomagnetism.
- Who are and what did these people propose? Harry Hess, Fred
Vine, H. Matthews, Francis Bacon.
- What are the three types of plate boundaries? Convergent,
- What are the three types of convergent plate boundaries?
ocean-ocean, ocean-continent, continent-continent
- What are these features and how do they related to plate
tectonics, rift, triple junction, oceanic ridge, subduction,
trench, island arc, back arc basin, fore arc basin, orogeny,
suture zone, transform, obduction.
- What are the explanations for plate movement? Convection,
- How does the magnetic field of the earth relate to plate
tectonics? inclination, declination, magnetic reversals.
- What is the Benioff Zone?
- What are the subdivisions of the sea floor from the
- What are these? continental shelf, continental slope,
continental rise, abyssal plain, trenches, submarine
mountains, seamounts, guyots.
- What are, and where do turbidity currents occur?
- What are the differences of passive and active continental
margins? What do you find associated with each?
- The Benioff seismic zone is what?
- What are the various types of reef? How do they relate to
weathering and erosion of a volcanic island?
- What is the composition of the ocean floor? How do
Ophiolites relate to the ocean floor?
Mountain Belts and the continental crust
- What is isostasy? What is isostatic rebound?
- What are mountain belts, mountain ranges and how do they
- What are the major mountain belts?
- What are the characteristics of the major mountain belts?
How do migmatites and batholiths relate to major mountain
- What is the evolution of mountain belts? Accumulation
stage, orogenic stage, uplift and block-faulting stage.
- How do continents grow? orogenic growth, terranes - suspect,
- What are suspect terranes, exotic terranes, accreted
- What is a Wilson Cycle?
- What is Pangea, Laurasia, and Gondwanaland?
Concepts to know:
- Natural resources, renewable vs. non-renewable.
- Geologic resources, energy, metals, nonmetals.
- Petroleum, what is it?, how does it form?, where does it
occur? How much oil do we have left?
- What are resources estimates vs. reserves?
- What is coal, how does it form?, where do we find it in this
- How much coal do we have left? Resource, reserves?
- What are the various types of nuclear reactors? What are
the problems with nuclear waste?
- How do ore deposits from? What are the Igneous sources,
Sedimentary sources, metamorphic sources? Hydrothermal,
- How do we extract ores from the ground? How does mining
affect the environment?
- What are Georgia's natural resources?
Return to Lecture notes
Return to Interactive Course Outline