Interactive Physiology Fluids and Electrolytes Assignment

name ___________________

Open and click on Introduction to Body Fluids

Slide 1. Body fluids are composed of _______________and ___________________

Slide 2. Read

Slide 3. Excess ions and water are removed by the ___________ organs.

Slide 4. Water has a high specific heat. Therefore sweating carries _______ away from the body.

Slide 5. Cerebrospinal fluid and amniotic fluids serve to _______(function) organs.

Slide 6. Water is a reactant in the _________ reactions of chemical digestion.

Slide 7. Water acts as a ________ to dissolve solute such as NaCl and acids such as HCl.

Slide 8. Water __________ nutrients and removes_________.

Slide 9. Obese patients have _______(more, less, the same) amount of total body water as compared to skinny ones.

S. 10.____% of typical body fluids is Intracellular Fluid (ICF).

____% of typical body fluids is Interstitial or Extracellular Fluid (ECF).

____% of typical body fluids is blood plasma.

S. 11. Read

S. 12. Organic lactate and proteins are ________(ion type).

S. 13. The most common cation in I.C.F. is ________ and the most common cation of ECF

and blood plasma is ______. ______ cation is also much higher in ICF as compared to ECF. 

S. 14. The anion ______ is much higher in ECF than ICF.

S. 15. In ICF he total number of positive charges is __________(larger, smaller, the same)

as the total number of negative charges.

S. 16. The enzyme in the red blood cell that catalyses the formation and breakdown of

carbonic acid is ________________.______ cation is a cofactor of this enzyme.

S. 17. A wave of depolarization opens voltage regulated ______ (ion type) channels.

When _______ ions enter the synaptic terminal//bulb, neurotransmitter vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane and remove the tropomyosin block in the sarcomere.

S. 18. The Na/K pump maintains a high concentration of _____ ions in the ECF and a high

concentration of _____ ions in the ICF. In the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron,

______ is cotransported with Na+ into the tubule cells from the filtrate.

S. 19 and 20. Review osmosis.

S. 21. Osmotic pressure is measured in _______ terms. The definition of osmotic pressure is _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.

As solute concentration increases, osmotic pressure ____________(increases, decreases, does not change).

As water concentration increases, osmotic pressure ____________ (increases, decreases, does not change.

S. 22. Review osmosis and intravenous solution concentrations. A slightly hypotonic IV

can be used to rehydrate a patient, but may cause RBCs to __________(shrink, swell, crenate) slightly.

S., 23. Review

S. 24 and 25. Self quiz

Click far right arrow to return to homepage. Click on Water Homeostasis.

S. 1. Water homeostasis is maintained by ____________ feedback with the Autonomic N.S.

S. 2. Read

S. 3. Total body water is approximately _______ l.

S. 4. In addition to food and drink, we gain water through ____________.

Water loss is typically:

a.      ______ ml/day from the kidneys.

b.     ______ ml/day from the lungs.

c.      ______ ml/day from the skin.

d.     ______ ml/day from the gut.

S. 5.______ -volemia accompanies dehydration.

S. 6. Taking in too much solutes and water results in _______________.

Plasma osmolarity ___________(increases, decreases, does not change).

S. 8. When water and salts are lost together in dehydration,  _______________ results. Plasma

osmolarity ___________(increases, decreases, does not change).

S. 9. When water is lost, ________ results. Plasma

osmolarity ___________(increases, decreases, does not change).

S. 10. Read

S. 11. The 3 steps of urine formation are in order: a. ___________; b. ____________ and 

c. ____________.

S. 12. Read

S. 13. Read

S. 14. Water homeostasis is maintained by: a. _____________, b. _______________,

c. _______________and d. _____________________.

S. 15. Osmoreceptors in the __________ organ detect increases ECF

osmolarity. __________ hormone is secreted in response to an

________________(increase, decrease, stasis) of osmolarity.

S. 16. Water channels called ____________ (look up) form in the late ______

portion of the nephron and in the collecting duct.

S. 17. Read

S. 18. Thirst is produced in the thirst center of the __________ organ when these

3 conditions are present: a. ____________, b. ______________and c. _______________.

S. 19. When water is ingested, stretching the ______ organ inhibits thirst.

S. 20. A decrease in blood volume leads to a decrease in __________________

which stimulates the kidney to release __________ enzyme. 

S. 21. Renin causes the formation of ___________. ACE converts this to _____________

in the lungs which then stimulates the adrenal cortex to release ______________.
If K+ is too high in plasma, aldosterone secretion ___________ (increases, decreases, does not change).

S. 22. K+ moves from _________ to _____________ when aldosterone affects the nephron.

S. 23. Na+ moves from _________ to _____________ when aldosterone affects the nephron.

S. 24. Read

S. 25. Read.

S. 26. When the Sympathetic N.S. stimulates/constricts the afferent arteriole glomerulus,

urine production ___________ (increases, decreases, does not change).

S. 27. Read.

S. 28 and 29. Self quiz

Click far right back arrow. 

Click Electrolyte Homeostasis.

S. 1. Read

S. 2. Read

S. 3. Read

S. 4. Na+ in ECF controls ___________________________.

S. 5. Read.

S. 6. Na+ and K+ move in opposite directions but both from low concentration to high

concentration areas. This is called _____________ transport (diffusion, passive, active, osmosis).

S. 7. The K+ channels illustrated are __________________ transport

(facilitated diffusion, passive, active, osmosis: use all terms that apply.).

S. 8. Read

S. 9. Read

S. 10. Proteins that escape blood plasma into ECF, return to the blood

in _____________ type vessels. Plasma proteins exert ____________ pressure (specific term).

S. 11 High or normal blood protein/albumin concentration tends to move fluids from the plasma

into the ECF. High hydrostatic pressure tends to move fluids from the _____________ (fluid compartment)

to the ____________ (fluid compartment).

S. 12. Accumulation of large amounts of ECF is called ______________ (condition).

S. 13. Hypoalbuminemia causes fluids to _________________(go into, go out of. Vasoconstrict)

the plasma. This ______________(increases, decreases, does not change) blood pressure.

S. 14. ___________ can force materials from the plasma to the ECF.

S. 15. Inflammation process causes mast cells to release _____________ to cause capillaries to leak

fluids and ______________(increases, decreases, does not change) blood volume.

S. 16. Blocking or surgical removal of ___________ vessels can cause ECF to accumulate edema.

S. 17. The concentration of plasma na+ is normally _______________ (range).

S. 18. Hypernatremia will cause tissue cells to ______________ (swell, shrink, depolarize).

S. 19-21. Read 

S. 22. Na+ is filtered out at the ________________(specific section) of the nephron and reabsorbed

at the _________________ of the nephron.

S. 23-24. Read

S. 25. Most K+ is absorbed in the ______________(specific section) of the nephron.

S. 26. Read

S. 27. Some ____________ (type) drugs can cause _________________condition.

The condition is corrected by the ingestion of K+.

S. 28. The range of plasma K+ is _____________________. The loss of small amounts of K+ can have major effects.

S. 29. If ECF K+ increases above normal, cells would ________________(swell, shrink, do not change in volume).

S. 30. If K+ leaks out excessively, the ICF will be charged ___________(positive, negative, does not change).

S. 31. ______ ion tends to move in opposite directions of K+.  In tissue acidosis,

there will be _______(more, less, the same amount) of K+ in the ICF. In alkalosis, there

will be ______(more, less, the same amount) of K+ in the ICF. A deficiency of K+ leads to

______________ in muscles.

S. 32. Hyperkalemia is caused by ___________________. Alkalosis causes __________-kalemia.

S. 33. The normal range of Ca++ in plasma is ____________________________.

S. 34. Hypocalcemia can cause ___________ in muscles.

S. 35 ____________hormone inhibits osteoclasts and stimulates osteoblasts to decrease plasma Ca++.

S. 36. _________ hormone stimulates osteoclasts to increase plasma Ca++.

S. 37. PTH also causes the activation of ______________ which increases plasma

Ca++ concentration by allowing for more Ca++ to be absorbed from the gut and reabsorbed by the kidneys.

S. 38. Read

S. 39 and 40. Self test.

Click far right back arrow.

Click Acid-Base Homeostasis.

S. 1-4. Read

S. 5.  Arterial pH is normally ___________?

Venous pH is normally ___________?

pH of ICF is normally___________?

pHof ECF is normally ___________?

S. 6. Read 

S. 7. HCl is a _____________acid (strong, weak, neutral)

S. 8. H2CO3 is a _____________acid (strong, weak, neutral).

S. 9. ______ organic acid is stronger than carbonic acid.

S. 10. _________ is a weak base.

S. 11. If H+ = OH-, the solution pH is _______. If H+ = 1 x 10-10, the pH is _______.

S. 12.  (Na2) HPO4-2 is a(n) ___________ (acidic, basic, amphoteric) compound/ion.

(Na) H2PO4- is a(n) ___________ (acidic, basic, amphoteric) compound/ion.

S. 13. Globular proteins _____________(process) in the presence of high H+ concentration.

S. 14-15. Read

S. 16. Chemicals that resist pH change are called _________________.

S. 17.  H++HCO3- _________________________

OH- +H2CO ___________________________

S. 18. H++__________  H2PO4-  +  Na+ 

S. 19-23. Read

S. 24. As more CO2 is removed from the body, blood pH ____________

(increases, decreases, does not change).

S. 25-26. Read

S. 27. If respiratory rate decreases CO2 in plasma,____________

(increases, decreases, does not change) and pH ____________(increases, decreases, does not change).

S. 28 and 29. If respiratory rate increases, CO2 in plasma,

____________(increases, decreases, does not change) and pH ____________

(increases, decreases, does not change).

S. 30. Read

S. 31. In blood alkalosis, HCO3- is _______________

(removed, reabsorbed, filtered) by the kidneys.

S. 32. In blood acidosis, HCO3- is _______________

(removed, reabsorbed, filtered) by the kidneys.

S. 33-35. Read

S. 36. H+ can be secreted as the mildly acidic cation _______.

At the same time ________ basic anion is reabsorbed.

S. 37-38. Read

S. 39. The optimum pH of blood for proteins/enzymes action is ________?

S. 40. read

S. 41. Six causes of metabolic acidosis are: a. ___________________

b. __________________

c. ______________________d. _______________________

e. _______________________ 

f. ______________________g. _______________________.

S. 42. Ketoacidosis can be caused by ____________________ disease. Symptoms include: 

a. ___________________________________b. _______________________________ 

andc _____________________________.

S. 43 and 44. Read

S. 45. Three causes of metabolic alkalosis are: a. ______________________

b. ________________________andc.___________________________.

S. 46-47. Read

S. 48. Three causes of respiratory acidosis are: a. ______________________

b. ________________________andc.___________________________.

S. 49. Read

S. 50. Three symptoms of respiratory acidosis are: a. ______________________

b. ________________________and c.___________________________.

S. 51. Renal compensation of respiratory acidosis is be secreting ________ ions and

reabsorbing ___________ ions.

S. 52. Hyperventilation causes respiratory __________________. Causes include: 

a. ______________________b. ________________________

and  c.___________________________.

S. 53. Renal compensation occurs when the kidney secrete ___________ ions.

S. 54-59. Read

S. 60-61. Self test.

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