STUDY GUIDE – Digestion,
Nutrition, and the Urinary System
CHAPTER 23 – THE DIGESTIVE
- Identify and explain the five processes digestive
- Identify the layers that are present in the walls of the
entire digestive tract.
- Understand the concept of peristalsis.
- Identify the major and accessory organs of the digestive
tract and understand their function.
- Identify the types of teeth and their primary functions.
- Understand the functions of saliva and be able to
identify its components.
- Know the types of substances secreted by the stomach and
which cells secrete them.
- Identify reasons why the stomach does not digest itself
and is not harmed by the chemicals it secretes.
- Distinguish among the cephalic, gastric, and intestinal
- Understand the importance of bile and pancreatic juice
- Know the parts of the small intestine.
- Know the parts of the large intestine.
- Understand the functions of bacterial flora present in
the large intestines.
CHAPTER 24 – NUTRITION AND
- Define the following terms: nutrient, essential
nutrient, complete protein, incomplete protein, an essential amino acid, and
- Identify the major classes of nutrients and their role
in bodily functions.
- Give examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and
- Understand the benefits of water-soluble fiber versus
- Give examples of saturated fats, unsaturated fats, and
sources of cholesterol.
- Identify the body’s preferences for fuel sources.
- Understand and explain nitrogen balance and what
conditions contribute to a positive nitrogen balance and a negative nitrogen
- Identify examples of major minerals and trace minerals.
- Identify the two classes of vitamins and give examples
CHAPTER 25 – THE URINARY
- Identify the major organs of the urinary system.
- Understand the functions of the urinary system.
- Understand the functions of each component of a nephron.
- Understand the steps in urine formation (i.e. glomerular
filtration and tubular reabsorption).
- Understand how the countercurrent exchange mechanism is
used to make a more concentrated or dilute urine.